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9.21.2017

cartas-amaia-6

Querida Amaia,

Sí, es cierto: los catalanes están en la calle ante los últimos intentos, desesperados, de reprimir la voluntad popular, concretado en el Parlament (en una sesión ciertamente bochornosa según todas las opininoes!) y impedir el referéndum del 1º de octubre. Si quieres te paso enlaces, pero las redes sociales están funcionando a la perfección!

Me dijiste que alá en Euskadi han salido afirmaciones de una supuesta organización empresarial en el sentido de que el proceso independentista está espantando los inversores. Y que el gobierno español predice un cataclismo de proporciones galácticas.

Mira, para empezar me ha llegado una lista de titulares de artículos de periódico, en catalán y en español, que no darían crédito a la afirmación. Aunque para hacerlo bien debería poner los enlaces. Lo siento, pero llevo más de 24 horas en danza, como te puedes imaginar!

- Nestlé invertirà 37M d'euros a Girona i afirma que la situació política no el preocupa
-Volkswagen escull el port de Tarragona com a gran centre logístic
- Zurich Assegurances escull Barcelona per establir un centre mundial de macrodades
- El gegant de les telecomunicacions coreà KT s’instal•larà a Barcelona
- Amazon adquiere parcela en El Prat para construir un gran centro logístico
- Barcelona será sede del Mobile World Congress hasta el 2023
- Easyjet abrirá en El Prat una base operativa tras cerrar la de Madrid
- Basf invertirà 21 milions d’euros a Catalunya
- HP invertirá más de 40 millones de euros en Cataluña en dos centros cloud
- Nintendo obre a Tarragona un centre logístic de 13.000 metres quadrats
- BWT invertirà 12 milions d'euros i crearà 100 llocs de treball a Sant Cugat
- Royal Caribbean Cruises obre la seva seu europea a Barcelona
- Ikea construirà a Valls (l’Alt Camp) la central de distribució dels seus productes per Internet per abastir tot l’estat espanyol, Portugal i el sud de França.
- Idilia Foods -companyia que integra marques com Cola Cao i Nocilla- ha començat la construcció del seu nou complex industrial a Parets del Vallès, que està previst que es posi en marxa el 2018.
- L'empresa agroquímica Arysta LifeScience instal•la a Barcelona la seva nova seu al sud d'Europa, la qual cosa ha suposat el tancament de les oficines que tenia a Sevilla.
- La multinacional alemana Boehringer Ingelheim creará más de 200 empleos con una nueva planta de producción en Sant Cugat del Vallès (Barcelona), y que supondrá una inversión de 100 millones de euros.

Bueno, queda claro.

Ahora bien, es la manera tan desastrosa de actuar del Gobierno español lo que está asustando los inversores en estos momentos, por su carácter agresivo y provocador. Ya tenemos un boicot anunciado en el Puerto de Barcelona, de los estibadores, en contra de los barcos llenos de policias que el Estado utilizará como hoteles en Cataluña.


9.13.2017

Corrupció

Corrupció política a Catalunya i Espanya / Political corruption in Catalonia and Spain


2011:

http://davidllada.com/blog/2011/05/19/lista-de-politicos-imputados-por-corrupcion/

2013:

November 2014:

"Corrupción en España: más de 1.900 imputados y al menos 170 condenados en más de 130 causas". Europa Press.
http://www.europapress.es/nacional/noticia-radiografia-corrupcion-espana-mas-1900-imputados-menos-170-condenados-mas-130-causas-20141102111941.html

a. The number of politicians charged and/or condemned, by Autonomous Community or City.
(Only interactive through website).

Number of accused politicians, by autonomous community.


Number of accused politicians per million inhabitants, by autonomous community.


Number of accused and/or guilty politicians per million inhabitants, by autonomous community.


b. Number of politicians found guilty, by case.


The figures are estimates based on published information. According to Europa Press, during the last legislature there were 1,900 people accused on corruption charges awaiting trial, and at least 170 have been found guilty of such charges..

2016

See http://www.lainformacion.com/policia-y-justicia/delitos-corporativos/este-es-el-mapa-de-la-corrupcion-del-partido-popular-en-espana_NPHQrJWMPJJAsnBhKWZlU1/

31 March 2017

Number of accused politicians, by autonomous community.
http://www.poderjudicial.es/stfls/CGPJ/REPOSITORIO%20DE%20PROCESOS%20POR%20CORRUPCI%C3%93N/DOCUMENTOSCGPJ/TSJs%201T%202017.xlsx


 

31 July 2017

Number of accused politicians, by autonomous community.

Corrupción en España: más de 1.900 imputados y al menos 170 condenados en más de 130 causas

Las cifras de la corrupción en España muestran que hay más de 1.900 personas imputadas en causas abiertas por corrupción y al menos 170 han sido condenadas por este tipo de delitos en la última legislatura.

Leer mas: http://www.europapress.es/nacional/noticia-radiografia-corrupcion-espana-mas-1900-imputados-menos-170-condenados-mas-130-causas-20141102111941.html

(c) 2015 Europa Press. Está expresamente prohibida la redistribución y la redifusión de este contenido sin su previo y expreso consentimiento.
Source: http://www.vozpopuli.com/actualidad/procesados-acusados-corrupcion-cifras_11_989711020.html
The paper claims that 210 Catalans (over two thirds of the total) were charged in the 3rd quarter of 2015, 45 in the 4th, 33 in the 1st quarter of 2016, 1 in the 2nd, and 14 in the 3rd quarter.

Comment: The data does not seem to be comparable to that of the 1st quarter of 2017 issued and uploaded on the CGPJ website www.cgpj.es.
Some go up enormously, led by the ten-fold apparent increase in Catalonia (30 --> 303), far overtaking the five regions that headed the list on March. Valencia actually goes down (62 --> 51) as does Castella-Lleó (34 --> 9).
Madrid also soars up, increasing seven-fold, from 20 to 145.
It seems clear that the two sets of data, given by the same source, are not comparable. Given the media's insistence - despite all the previous evidence - that corruption in Catalonia is far worse than anywhere else, I regard the latest data, apparently issued on July 31 2017, as highly suspect. In particular, what were the 210 Catalans in the 3rd quarter of 2015 charged with?

Well, Roger Rué managed to clear this up. He too found it very odd that so many non-EU citizens were in the statistics (75: 45 men and 30 women). The string of his tweets starts with this one:
He concludes thus:

Of the 210 cases that quarter, the 75 couples and two civil servants in the arranged weddings accounted for 152. Hardly "political corruption" in any sense of the term. How many of the other 58 cases, that same quarter, were really political in nature?

I can't get more data or press articles on this. However, in the same period the issue was covered here, for Madrid: https://www.elconfidencial.com/espana/2015-09-15/el-coladero-de-la-tarjeta-de-la-ue-6-000-euros-por-casarse-con-una-gitana-espanola_1016484/


This manipulation of the data on Catalonia fuelled philosopher Fernando Savater to claim, in a right-wing Nationalist newspaper, that ‘Cataluña es la región más corrupta de España’, exactly 81 years after Franco's disastrous military coup. (

https://gaceta.es/espana/entrevista-fernando-savater-cataluna-es-la-region-mas-corrupta-de-espana-20170718-0650/

For other data on corruption, see:
Gràfics, mapes i dades sobre la relació Catalunya - Espanya - Món

Another source, noted for its hostility towards all things Catalan, claimed in 2013, on the basis of an EU report, that "Cataluña es la región más corrupta de España" and that "Bruselas advierte de que las administraciones catalanas salen muy mal paradas en cuanto a calidad y transparencia". It blames the low score on a number of cases, the most important of which only hit the fan after 1 February 2010, when the last data were gathered for the report!
https://www.libremercado.com/2013-09-12/la-ue-situa-a-cataluna-como-una-de-las-regiones-mas-corruptas-de-toda-europa-1276499234/

Report: Regional Governance Matters: A Study on Regional Variation in Quality of Government within the EU, by Nicholas Charron, Victor Lapuente and Lewis Dijkstra.
http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/work/2012_02_governance.pdf

The 15 Survey Questions Incorporated in the Regional QoG Index
Rule of Law-focused questions
■ ‘how would you rate the quality of the police force in your area?’ (low/high, 0-10)
■ ‘The police force gives special advantages to certain people in my area.’ (agree/disagree, 0-10)
■ ‘All citizens are treated equally by the police force in my area’ (agree, rather agree, rather disagree or disagree, 1-4)
■ ‘Corruption is prevalent in the police force in my area’ (agree/disagree, 0-10)
Government Effectiveness-focused questions
■  ‘how would you rate the quality of public education in your area?’ (low/high, 0-10)
■  ‘how would you rate the quality of the public healthcare system in your area?’ (low/high, 0-10)
■  ‘Certain people are given special advantages in the public education system in my area’ (agree/disagree, 0-10)
■  ‘Certain people are given special advantages in the public healthcare system in my area.’(agree/disagree, 0-10)
■  ‘All citizens are treated equally in the public education system in my area.’ (agree, rather agree, rather disagree or disagree, 1-4)
■  ‘All citizens are treated equally in the public healthcare system in my area.’ (agree, rather agree, rather disagree or disagree, 1-4)
Voice and Accountability-focused questions
■ ‘In your opinion, if corruption by a public employee or politician were to occur in your area, how likely is it that such corruption would be exposed by the local mass media?’(unlikely/likely, 0-10)
■ ‘Please respond to the following: Elections in my area are honest and clean from corruption.’
(agree/disagree, 0-10)
Corruption-focused questions
■‘Corruption is prevalent in my area’s local public school system.’(agree/disagree, 0-10)
■ ‘Corruption is prevalent in the public healthcare system in my area.’(agree/disagree, 0-10)
■ ‘In the past 12 months have you or anyone living in your household paid a bribe in any form to health or medical services?’(yes/no)
■ ‘In your opinion, how often do you think other citizens in your area use bribery to obtain public services?’(never/very often, 0-10)

In addition we included two further questions in the index – one about the fairness of regional elections and the other about the strength and effectiveness of the media in the region to expose corruption.

See also: http://www.qog.pol.gu.se/digitalAssets/1357/1357979_paper-describing-the-eqi-data.pdf

Finally, Prof. Sala Martín reminds readers that this study is not on levels of governance, including corruption, but rather on perceptions of these levels.
http://salaimartin.com/randomthoughts/item/755-corrupci%C3%B3n-en-catalunya-respuesta-a-luis-garicano.html 

9.09.2017

Revolucionaris


Hi ha catalans que han somiat en la revolució tota la vida.

I ara n'hi ha una en marxa, la dels somriures, la que miren amb admiració en el món sencer, la que si no surt bé, els seus dirigents -centenars, més de mil- poden acabar a la presó (i jo també, per apologia, o sedició o vés a saber), o amb els seus béns confiscats, la que vol donar-nos a TOTS, TOTS, la gran oportunitat, esperada des de fa tres-cents anys per tantes i tantes generacions de catalans -i també molts dels que han vingut fa menys temps, i hi han prosperat i han fet de Catalunya casa seva-, de decidir de la forma més democràtica possible si volem o no ser lliures com Malta o Irlanda, com Portugal o Andorra!

I en aquest moment històric, transcendental, com pot haver-hi algú en aquest petit però gran país, que ha sobreviscut guerres, setges, cops d'estat, invasions, dictadures, collites perdudes, gran plagues i col·lapses econòmics, que dubti a donar tot el seu suport -personal i si s'escau institucional- als qui l'organitzen, als que s'estan jugant la pell -gairebé literalment- per nosaltres? Quantes revolucions han reeixit si el poder constituït (econòmic, polític, financer, mediàtic, militar, religiós...) en ple, a l'uníson, ha fet quedar-se a casa, espantats i amagats darrere el sofà, els seus grans somiadors?

Aquesta revolució, profunda, arrelada, popular, pacífica i, sobretot, democràtica, necessita tots els que creuen en el futur de Catalunya. No vull que em passi pel cap que algun català sigui tan mesquí, tan mesquí, de pensar que pot esperar que el xoc de trens acabi amb els seus adversaris locals fora de combat, per aspirar a ser el cap d'una sardina, amb aquest poder esquifit i autonòmic que veiem que està acabant amb el poble català tal com el coneixem?

Au, nois, ara és l'hora. Ens veiem dilluns a la tarda. Suposo!


I ja que hi som:







8.30.2017

DilysDavies

From:
Dilys R. Davies (2001) Within and Without (The Story of the Welsh). The Impact of Cultural Factors on Mental Health in the Present Day in Wales. In Dinesh Bhugra and Roland Littlewood (eds) Colonialism and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press 2001.


... the Dependency-Spectator-Submissive constellation outlined by Bateson. The main method through which this elaboration was achieved was the psychological tactic which Kelly (1955) describes as 'constriction', which deals with the world both at a personal and national level. Here we narrow our range of operations and thus place other options outside our range. In Wales, as historians such as John Davies (1993) and Aitchison and Carter (1994) document, the language itself was subjected to a progressive constriction in the areas in which it was used with a consequent reduction of its status. In the areas of law, administration and government,
...
209

 

The dominated group are typically marginalized and are seen as deviating from the social norm. They are regarded as the pathology of the dominant or 'healthy' society and are labelled as 'incompetent' or 'lazy' by the dominating group who seek to make them integrate to its own patterns by changing their mentality. 

Education and a form of paternalism in the guise of 'improving' a people can be used as such a means to make people fit better with a dominant culture. An example of this is the Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales of 1847, (the Treachery of the Blue Books). This report on the system of education through the medium of Welsh pointed out the moral laxness of the Welsh. As a result of the report, education through the medium of English was established, and English became the sole language of the schools. Welsh came to be regarded as a language children were better off without. Because teachers' pay was normally based on results and Welsh was not part of the recognised curriculum, the use of Welsh was actively discouraged by teachers—
and in many instances, by parents whose motivation simply reflected the
212

 ... John Davies states, '...in most of the schools of Welsh-speaking Wales, there were pupils whose main experience of education was a mechanical drilling in a language which they did not understand; as late as 1960, it was possible to meet old people who remembered nothing of their schooldays except the learning by rote of a book known to them as "Redimarisi" (Reading Made Easy)' (1990: 455-6).

As we saw earlier on in this chapter, human beings do not exist in silence. Language cannot exist without thought, and neither language nor thought can exist without a structure to which they refer. Fanon points out for the dominating group, 'The words of his own class come to be the 'true" words which he imposes or attempts to impose on others: the oppressed, whose words have been stolen from them. Those who steal the words of others develop as deep doubt in the abilities of the others and consider them incompetent. Each time they say their word without hearing the word of those whom they have forbidden to speak, they grow more accustomed to power and acquire a taste for guiding, ordering, and commanding. They can no longer live without having someone to give orders to' (1970: 115).

Another way of manipulation is through pacts or reforms offered by the dominant society. Almost always these come about in response to the demands of the historical process. As a way of preserving its position, the dominator may accept or carry out reforms before people get too angry, as long as the reforms do not affect their power of decision. In Wales, this has been reflected, for example, in the government's attitude of grudging concessions and reforms in areas such as public administration, education, political and legislative developments, and in public broadcasting. In public administration, there were attempts to gain official recognition for the Welsh language but successive governments proved difficult to be convinced. The positive steps which were won in the first half of the twentieth century were the result of long, hard campaigns. However, as far as public life was concerned, Welsh language continued to have no status. In education, although there were a few concessions to to Welsh people earlier on in the century, it was not until 1944 that a legislation was passed to enable the provision of Welsh-medium schools and it was not until 1956 that the first Welsh-medium secondary school. Full recognition for Welsh education finally came in 1988. Regarding political and legislative developments,
213

...
persons or groups but a repertoire of constructions evolved over time through the relationship between two groups. Over time, this is manifested in our relationship to ourselves as well as in our relationship to others. According to Kelly (1955), we experience ourselves and our world through constructs or bipolar dimensions that we have developed through our experience in which. each group takes up position on opposite ends of a bipolar construct, e.g. either dominating-submitting, active-passive, etc. The same concepts may be seen in the work of Freire, Fannon and Fromm, who analyse the pattern of relationships between dominant and dominating groups. This may be seen as what psychotherapists such as Ryle (1990) terms a reciprocal role process. This involves not just the relationship between two sets of constructs belonging to two separate groups but includes the concept, the notion that the constructs of one group are internalized by the other group and become their own. Regarding our relationship to ourselves, writers such as Fromm, Fanon, Freire and Anna Freud, use different terms but all describe the same psychological process which is the direct result of the experience of being dominated. One way of coping with feeling powerless and dominated is to identify with the internalizing aspects of the the dominator in order to feel and restore one's sense of effectiveness. This results in an internal split or duality within the self. This is what Anna Freud termed 'identification with the aggressor', Fromm 'internal duality', Fanon 'adhesion' to the dominator, and Freire 'housing' the other. In this way, people maintain an illusion that they are not helpless and do have some power in their lives.

Earlier on in this chapter we saw how the self is formed in the sociocultural relations of the social structure. According to writers such as Fannon and Fromm, a situation of domination maintains the self in a position of identification with or 'adhesion' to a reality which seems all powerful and overwhelming. Part of the oppressed self is then located in the reality to which it 'adheres'. In this way the structure of thought of the dominated group has been conditioned by the situation which has imposed its shape on them so that the self of the dominated is both dominator and dominated. The attitudes, beliefs, values, and actions of the dominating group are internalized and thus felt as part of the self. The self is then split— shaped by and existing in a contradictory experience with the resulting ambiguity or duality. This adhesion—
217

...or partial adhesion— of people to the dominating group makes it difficult for them to locate it outside themselves. It is because of this ambiguity, according to Althusser (1971), that many professional people who have been 'determined from above' by a culture of domination become intermediaries or managers carrying out the directives of those who are in power. Because they have been conditioned by a culture of achievement and personal success, to recognize their own situation as objectively unfavourable would seem to hinder their own possibilities of success. However, because these patterns of domination are instilled within them they are insecure and anxious in their professional role. According to Friere (1996), they then tend to rationalize this anxiety with a series of evasions and rationalizations rather than any critical analysis or constructive action. From this perspective, many Welsh-speaking managers in the psychotherapy services in Wales may be seen in such dual roles, performing the role of intermediaries in carrying out the directives of a system which disregards the cultural context within which they work.

From the work on culture and identity, inter-related types of cultural constructs and themes emerge. These themes, which are the consequences of domination, operate at an individual, interpersonal, and group or national level.

FATALISM AND DOCILITY

Erich Fromm points out that when superficially analysed, this fatalism is sometimes interpreted as a trait of national character such as docility or passivity. However, he points out, fatalism in the guise of docility is the result of a historical and sociological situation, not an essential characteristic of a people's behaviour.

PASSIVITY

Freire, Fanon and Fromm describe how a consequence of domination is that people will feel downtrodden, fatalistically accept and react in a passive and alienated manner. Commenting on this legacy in Ireland, Kenny points out that the Irish have been left with components of despair, dependency, self-abnegation, withdrawal, shame, guilt, loss of pride, loss of confidence, and sense of worthlessness. These same themes are found in historical accounts of our legacy in Wales which document passivity, servility, lack of awareness, faint heartedness, and lack of pride. John Davies...
218

(1993) points out that commentators such as Michael Daniel Jones saw this resulting from English control of the land, industries, and commerce and the dominance of the English language over the courts and schools. Saunders Lewis (1962) points to our lack of national awareness, our deficiency of national pride. He considered that the purpose of politics was the defence of civilization. He wrote that civilization 'is more than an abstraction. It must have a local habitation and a name. Here its name is Wales.' (cited in John Davies ,1990: 591). He viewed civilization as being threatened when people were without property and responsibility.

DEPENDENCY

This is the result of a process where people at a certain point in their existential experience are dependent on others.
The dominated group, having internalized the image and adopted the guidelines of the dominating group, becomes adapted to and resigned to the structure of domination. The result of passivity and the giving up of responsibility is dependency and helplessness as people lack confidence in themselves. Seligman's (1975) notion of learned helplessness is pertinent here. When we find that none of our coping mechanisms make any difference to our dilemma, we don't do anything or give up, i.e., become depressed.

FEAR OF RISK TAKING

Due to the conditioned fear of going against external and internalized power structures, people fear risks and experimentation with reality, and prefer security. A hidden premise here which is usually not made explicit is that it is better to be a subject of domination than risk any other course of action.

LACK OF RESPONSIBILITY OR INITIATIVE

This is a consequence of fatalism and a reaction to an impossible external environment where people no longer see it possible to act constructively and change the situation. All responsibility is pushed on to the dominating group or authority figure. This leads to feelings of self-doubt, helplessness and hopelessness. Any action which may be construed as trying to change the situation will be viewed as unwarranted confrontation.

FEAR AND MISTRUST

Domination results in what Fromm terms a 'dominated consciousness full of doubts, fears and mistrust' (1966: 147). This is seen in...
219

... their ambiguity to their own people as they mistrust the oppressor 'housed' in them. Continually frustrated and fearful of directly confronting the source of their frustration, Fanon describes how people can give vent to their anger and attack the dominator indirectly by forms of 'horizontal violence', against their own people often for the pettiest reasons.

SENSE OF INFERIORITY AND LACK OF CONFIDENCE

Because they have been continually told that they are inferior, that the 'other' knows things and is able to run things, eventually people become convinced of their own unfitness. They have a diffuse belief in the other group's invulnerability and power. This results in insecurity and a lack of confidence. John Davies documents that historically, Welsh speakers were imbued with self- contempt and describes how Saunders Lewis viewed the chief aim of movements towards self government in Wales was 'to take away from the Welsh with their sense of inferiority.' Self-depreciation derives from the internalization of the opinion that the dominators hold of them.

Interpersonal Styles of Communication

Considering interpersonal cultural constructs or styles of communication resulting from domination, Kenny outlines four types of constructs which are an elaboration of Bateson's cultural analysis of the submission-dominance constellation.

SUPERFICIAL COMPLIANCE

One way to cope with a dominant authority is to appear at least superficially compliant. An aspect of this is group conformity. By focusing attention on what one must be seen to be doing, there is a gulf created between such activities and one's inner personal reality.

INDIRECT COMMUNICATION

This technique had a strong survival value in the face of oppression where it was important to learn to be evasive and develop a mental dexterity. This may be re-labelled by the dominating group in such terms as deceit and dishonesty. Another example is the difficulty in being self-assertive even when there is a justifiable complaint. Rather, people will complain to one another about somebody else and not like the idea of facing the person directly. This also applies to relationships with friends and ...
220

... to relationships with friends and to positive events. For example, it may be difficult in directly communicating positive feelings so that things tend to be understated if stated at all. Indirect communication also involves covert retaliation/aggression such as gossiping and backbiting.

AVOIDANCE OF SELF-REVELATION

This is when people feel unable to communicate aspects of themselves directly to others. Kenny points out that this is an elaboration of the submission construct and a reflection of the taboo against exhibitionism, especially against exhibiting superiority or too high a self-regard. The effect of this strategy is to block self-expression through self-censorship. This also means that inner feelings remain unexpressed and, therefore, unacknowledged in relationships.

ELABORATION OF THE INNER WORLD 

The fourth construct is a corollary of the first three constructs which are about communication with the external world. This construct involves a creative application of spectatorship to inner processes. Here we find an elaboration of fantasy, magical thinking, poetry, music, etc. We have seen how in Wales, the language, and thus identity, became constricted and associated with the world of literature, poetry, and spiritual life. According to Kenny, this may also be a strategy for self-reassurance — the creation of a personal 'reality' which could not be touched, got at or invalidated. However, the more the focus is on inner reality, the more the external reality comes to be regarded as something about which not much can be done and for which you do not feel responsible for. 

Below is a summary of some of the dimensions found within this type of cultural heredity. They are characteristic features of the pattern of relationship between Wales and England outlined earlier in this chapter. This is an adaption and elaboration of the work of Kelly, Kenny, and Bateson to include the concept of duality or reciprocal roles. These are some of the constructs which we can abstract from the above analysis of Welsh identity in the context of this type of cultural legacy. These are not exhaustive by any means. They represent in summary form some of the basic cultural channels through which we tend to process our psychological and cultural phenomena. Such cultural options become enshrined so that they...

Table 8.1 Bipolar constructs
Spectator Actor
Object Subject
Accept Impose
Obey Prescribe/Lead
Submissive Dominating 
Failure/Defeated Successful 
Inferiority Superiority 
Dependent Independent 
Helpless Powerful 
Passive Active 
Superficial compliance Involvement
Conforming Innovative 
Evasive Direct 
Ashamed Proud 
Self-depreciating Self-affirming 
Low self-esteem High self-esteem 
Self-doubt Self-confidence 
Worthless Worthy 
Useless Useful 
Silent Speaking out 

...are seen almost as 'facts'.

The fifth item is an obvious corollary of the last three, which pointed to a block in communication between the self and the outer world. This level, which bridges the socio-psychological levels, is a focus on the inner world of the self. With this step we are getting closer to the deep structures of the Irish personality. Here we find an elaboration of fantasy, magical thinking, poetry, music, etc. We have seen how in Wales, the language, and thus identity, became constricted and associated with the world of literature, poetry, and spiritual life. According to Kenny, this may also be a strategy for self-reassurance — the creation of a personal 'reality' which could not be touched, got at or invalidated. However, the more the focus is on inner reality, the more the external reality comes to be regarded as something about which not much can be done and for which you do not feel responsible for.

Below is a summary of some of the dimensions found within this type of cultural heredity. They are characteristic features of the pattern of relationship between Wales and England outlined earlier in this chapter. This is an adaption and elaboration of the work of Kelly, Kenny, and Bateson to include the concept of duality or reciprocal roles.

These are some of the constructs which we can abstract from the above analysis of Welsh identity in the context of this type of cultural legacy. These are not exhaustive by any means. They represent in summary form some of the basic cultural channels through which we tend to process our psychological and cultural phenomena. Such cultural options become enshrined so that they ...
221


... are seen almost as 'facts'. Kenny describes how although it has been 60 years since Ireland finally became independent of England, there has been very little change in these types of bipolar choices. When people criticize the Welsh or Irish it is generally the negative pole of some of these constructs that are picked out and re-labelled. For example, passive can be viewed as 'lacking initiative' or 'lazy' and 'evasive' may be re-labelled as 'deceitful'. These constructs are formed in our relationship to others. We also internalize the views that powerful 'others' hold of us becoming, as Fromm and Friere describe, as dual beings. These views are then adopted as part of our selves. 
Given below is an example of such a reciprocal role patterns. These constructs and reciprocal roles become functionally autonomous, as if they have a life of their own, and people find it very hard to shake out of these moulds. This is the nature of the cultural gap between monolingual English psychotherapists and bilingual Welsh speakers in Wales. The words we use not only describe the world we live in but also dictate what we can see and how we see the world.
 
Table 8.2  Reciprocal role patterns
Relationship to others Relationship to self 
OTHER    SELF SELF 
Dominating Oppressed Self-depressing
Contemptuous Despised Self-contempt 
Controlling Controlled Passivity/Helplessness 
Powerful Defeated/Weak Self-defeating/Hopelessness 
Autonomous Crushed Depressed 

222


See also:
Welsh psyche: implications for psychological services, International Review of Psychiatry Vol. 11, Iss. 2-3, 1999. 
http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080%2F09540269974384


http://www.assembly.wales/en/bus-home/bus-third-assembly/bus-legislation-third-assembly/bus-leg-legislative-competence-orders/bus-legislation-lco-2009-no10/nafw_lc5-wl_consutlation/nafw_lc5_wllco_individual-reponses/Pages/nafw_lc5_wllco-60i-.aspx

 

8.12.2017

Parnell

Del seu famós discurs a Cork abans de la independència (1885)

"Without the help of the people our exertions would be as nothing.
No man has the right to fix the boundary to the march of a nation.
No man has the right to say to his country "Thus far shalt thou go and no further". 
We have never tried to fix the ne plus ultra to the progress of Ireland's nationhood and we never shall.".

https://www.google.es/search?q=%22no%20man%20has%20the%20right%20to%20fix%22&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-b&gfe_rd=cr&ei=M7eOWZ7JN8GFwgLo6ZO4Bw#gfe_rd=cr&imgrc=3_941n7c5J08aM:



https://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view%3B_ylt=AwrB8pavsY5ZIRUA9Q6KnIlQ%3B_ylu=X3oDMTIzajdqbmdxBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1nBG9pZANjMTNiOTg2MjRiNTYwZDQ4NGJlZGVlZGEzOTliY2EwOARncG9zAzM0BGl0A2Jpbmc-?.origin=&back=https%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dparnell%2Bmonument%26fr%3Dmcafee%26imgurl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Farchiseek.com%252Fwp-content%252Fgallery%252Fireland-buildings-dublin-north-o%252Fparnell_monument_detail_lge.jpg%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D34&w=450&h=563&imgurl=archiseek.com%2Fwp-content%2Fgallery%2Fireland-buildings-dublin-north-o%2Fparnell_monument_detail_lge.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Farchiseek.com%2F2010%2F1910-parnell-monument-oconnell-street-dublin%2F&size=61.0KB&name=%3Cb%3Eparnell_monument%3C%2Fb%3E_detail_lge&p=parnell+monument&oid=c13b98624b560d484bedeeda399bca08&fr2=&fr=mcafee&tt=%3Cb%3Eparnell_monument%3C%2Fb%3E_detail_lge&b=0&ni=21&no=34&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=127udl69a&sigb=16qnloegs&sigi=131hsao8r&sigt=112fiius9&sign=112fiius9&.crumb=k5Fyc6y357i&fr=mcafee

7.07.2017

Vídeos sobre la participació en el referèndum de l'u d'octubre de 2017



Espot "Spot instruccions per votar #1OCT"
Govern de la Generalitat.
15 setembre de 2017
0'21"



Espot "Vas néixer amb la capacitat de decidir"
Govern de la Generalitat.
7 de setembre de 2017
0'20"



"Si o no, tu decides"
www.sionotudecides.com

SI O NO, TU DECIDES - POBREZA ENERGETICA from iddiX on Vimeo.


El teatre amb el referèndum 

3'47"

L'1 d'octubre, #ComSempre (0' 34")



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